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Chromatic Dispersion is a broadening of the input signal as it travels down the length of the fiber. Chromatic Dispersion results from a variation in propagation delay with wavelength, and is affected by fiber materials and dimensions.
A Detector is a signal conversion device that converts power from one form to another, such as from optical power to electrical power
Jitter in technical terms is the deviation in or displacement of some aspect of the pulses in a high-frequency digital signal. Jitter is the time variation of a periodic signal in electronics and telecommunications, often in relation to a reference clock source. Jitter may be observed in characteristics such as the frequency of successive pulses, the signal amplitude, or phase of periodic signals. Jitter is a significant, and usually undesired, factor in the design of almost all communications links (e.g., USB, PCI-e, SATA, OC-48). In clock recovery applications it is called timing jitter.
Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)
Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is a form of modal dispersion where two different polarizations of light in a waveguide, which normally travel at the same speed, travel at different speeds due to random imperfections and asymmetries, causing random spreading of optical pulses. It is he difference between the maximum and minimum values of loss typically measured in ps/km^1/2.